The overall, what may be called, "full stack", high-level architecture, is depicted in the diagram below. (Click on the image to enlarge).
This figure can best be read through a "follow the data" stream. Arrows denote data flow. Blue boxes tools. Green boxes data.
The main scenario starts at the bottom of the figure.
In short from bottom to top:
- bottom green boxes: raw datasets
- ETL is Extract Transform Load, basically data conversion & transformation from raw to "manageable" data
- ETL: GDAL - gdaldem tooling to convert raw DEM height data to hillshade (GeoTIFF)
- ETL: also extract (Vector) Contour lines from DEM and store in PostGIS
- ETL: osm2pgsql converts raw OpenStreetMap data files (.pbf) to PostGIS
- ETL: NLExtract converts Dutch Key Registry data, usually GML, to PostGIS
- Unified Data Schema: further expanded in Data Design Section, funnels all Vector data into single Schema
- Mapnik is basically a Raster Map Renderer that can operate on various data sources (GTiff, PostGIS, ..)
- Mapnik operates with Mapnik Style files (.xml) later CartoCSS to generate raster map files
- MapProxy is a raster data server that supports a multitude of raster map sources, usually WMS, here Mapnik
- MapProxy can generate so called Tile Caches to store rendered map (raster) tiles
- GeoPackage is a versatile, fast and easy to deploy tile cache (single) file format
- MapProxy serves raster maps in a large range of Web Mapping protocols: WMTS, WMS, TMS, "XYZ",..
- Finally Traefik is a front-end HTTP(S) server to the users and apps that consume the map tiles
- Traefik is not only a routing Proxy but also automatically handles/creates/updates SSL certificates using the free Let's Encrypt service
- Just Objects B.V. is a sponsor of Let's Encrypt!